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Urban Construction in Shanghai
Investment in Urban Construction
 
The city has made breakthroughs in the construction of hub-oriented, functional and networked infrastructures. For the 2001-2006 period, Shanghai invested 438.275 billion yuan in its urban construction projects, accounting for 25.5% of the total fixed assets investment in the period. The progress in the city's infrastructure network has contributed greatly to further improving its investment environment, opening further to the outside world and enhance its comprehensive function.

Key Urban Construction Projects
 
According to its overall urban development plans and goals, the city has sped up the key urban construction projects through scientific coordination. It has already completed landmark projects, including the bridges over the Huangpu River, tunnels, elevated roads, expressways, subways, international airports, and Yangshan Deep-water Port. In 2006, Shanghai invested 64.195 billion yuan into key urban construction projects. In the year, the city.

Donghai Bridge
 
The first long cross-sea bridge in China links up the Yangshan Deep-water Port with Luchao Port in Nanhui District. The bridge spans 32.5 kilometers, with six vehicle lanes in two ways and emergency parking areas. It is 31.5 meters wide, and the designed vehicle speed is 80 kilometers per hour. The bridge started operation in late 2005.
 

Pudong International Airport
 
The Pudong International Airport, at about the mid-point of the Europe- America aviation route, has been one of the world's major aviation hubs. It is about 30 kilometers away from the city's downtown. The airport terminal building looks like a super seagull spreading its wings. The first phase of the airport has a 4E runway 4,000 meters long and 60 meters wide, a parking space of 800,000 square meters that can hold 76 planes at a time.
 

 
The second phase includes a runway 4,000 meters long and 60 meters wide, a terminal building with a floor area of 800,000 square meters and four runways. When all the projects are completed, the airport can handle 80 million passengers and 5 million tons of cargo a year.

Shanghai Southern Railway Station
 
Located in Caohejing of Xuhui District, the station is the southern gate of Shanghai in the city's railway hub plan and links Shanghai to other parts of the country and functions as a transit hub for local commuters. The roof of the main building at the station takes the shape of a flying disk, and the planned floor area of the facility is about 600,000 square meters. The project includes the station proper and support facilities, station kiosks and relevant development projects, a square and support urban infrastructure projects, and a project for handling transit mail. The station started operation in 2006.

Cross-river Projects
 
Before the 1990s, residents hand to take ferry to travel across the Huangpu River as there was neither bridge nor tunnel linking the two parts of Shanghai separated by the river. Since the government adopted the opening and reform policy for Pudong, six bridges, namely Nanpu, Yangpu, Xupu, Lupu, Fengpu and Songpu, and six crossriver tunnels, namely, Out Ring Rd, Xiangyin Rd, Dalian Rd, Yan'an Rd E., Fuxing Rd E. and Dapu Rd, have been completed. Nanpu Bridge It is the first bridge Shanghai built across the Huangpu River. The 8,346-meter-long bridge has an under-clearance of 46 meters, thus allowing ships with a tonnage of 55,000 to pass under it. As a cablestayed bridge, its main bridge is 846 meters long and 30.35 meters wide, divided into six lanes. The approaches have a combined length of 7,500 meters and the West Shanghai spiral approach is 3,754 meters long. The bridge opened to traffic on December 1, 1991.

Yangpu Bridge
 
Located 11 kilometers downstream, this is a sister bridge of the Nanpu Bridge. The two bridges act as two wings to help the Inner-Ring Road to fly across the Huangpu River. Also a cable-stayed bridge, the Yangpu Bridge is 7,658 meters long with a 602-meterwide main arch. The bridge opened to traffic in October 1993.
 

Lupu Bridge
 
It was named "world's No. 1 arch bridge" for the 10 records the projects set. The whole- steel structure is recognized as" world No. 1 steel bridge". With a total length of 8.7 kilometers, the bridge starts from Luban Road in Puxi, spans the Huangpu River and reaches Jiyang Road in Pudong. Its main arch, spanning 750 meters, flies across the river. The main bridge has six traffic lanes. The bridge's under-clearance reaches 46 meters and it provides a water navigation lane of 340 meters wide. The bridge opened to traffic in 2003.
 

Dalian Road Tunnel
 
It parallels with the second phase of the Pearl Line Light Rail. The tunnel has four traffic lanes going two ways and each lane is 3.75 meters wide. The lane above-clearance is 4.5 meters. It is designed for a speed of 40 kilometers per hour. The tunnel, with a total length of 2.5 kilometers, opened to traffic in 2003.

Fuxing Road E. Tunnel
 
It is the world's first double-deck tunnel in operation. The tunnel has six lanes. The 3-meter-wide, two-lane upper deck is designed for cars and has height limit of 2.4 meters. The lower deck has a 3.5-meter-wide drive lane and a 2.5-meter-wide emergency lane, with a height limit of 3.8 meters. The speed limit is 40 kilometers per hour. With a total length of 2,785 meters, the tunnel opened to traffic in 2004.
 

Xiangyin Road Tunnel
 
With the biggest diameter among China's cross-river highway tunnel, it will link with the planned Shanghai-Chongming-Jiangsu crossriver tunnel. The northern part of the project totals 2,597 meters, and the south section 2,606 meters. The tunnel has four two-way lanes in two pipes with a designed speed limit at 80 kilometers per hour. It opened to traffic in 2005.

Rail Network
 
An urban rail network has taken its initial shape since the 1990s when Shanghai began to build a modern metropolitan road system. By the end of 2006, the city had built five subway lines and a maglev line, covering a total of 169.36 kilometers and transporting 1.8 million passengers a day. By 2010 when Shanghai hosts the World Expo, the city will have 11 subway lines, with a total length of 400 kilometers, transporting more than 5 million passengers a day.

Subways
 
With a total length of 33.89 kilometers, the Metro Line 1 goes from Xinzhuang to the crossing of Taihe Rd and Out Ring Road, with 26 stops and a speed limit of 80 kilometers per hour. The Metro Line 2 is the east-west artery of the rail network. With a total length of 27.03 kilometers, it goes from the Hongqiao Airport to Longdong Rd E. in Pudong. The Metro Line 3 is the country's first elevated metro line. It extends 25 kilometers from Shanghai Southern Railway Station to Jiangyang Rd N. in the northeast. The Metro Line 4 covers 22 kilometers, with 17 stops, including 9 that it shares with Metro Line 3. The 17.2-kilometer Metro Line 5 joins Line 1 at Xinzhuang.

Exemplary Maglev Line
 

 
It is the first commercial maglev line in the world. It is also the first maglev line in China designed for transportation, sightseeing and tour trips. It connects Pudong International Airport with the expressways entering the downtown. With a total length of 30 kilometers, the maglev train has a designed speed limit of 430 kilometers per hour. The whole trip takes seven minutes. It started operation in December 2002.

Elevated Highways
 
The city's network of elevated roads consists of the Elevated Inner-Ring Road, the Elevated South-North Road, and the Elevated Yan'an Road. The 48-kilometer Elevated Inner-Ring Road goes along the circular Zhongshan Road and links up the two sides along the Huangpu River through the Nanpu Bridge and the Yangpu Bridge. The Elevated South-North Road, with six lanes, goes across the city center, covering a total length of 8.45 kilometers. The Elevated Yan'an Road starts from the Zhongshan Road E1 in the east and reaches the Hongqiao Airport in the west. With a total length of 14.8 kilometers, it connects with the other two elevated roads to form an elevated road network in the city center.

Expressways
 
With a combined length of 560 kilometers, the city's expressway network now allows people to enter the network within 15 minutes, switch to any expressway within 30 minutes and arrive at any spot on the network within 60 minutes. This is the so-called"153060"target of the city's expressway network development. A number of expressways or sections, such as the Shanghai section of the Hu-Hang Expressway, the Shanghai section of the Hu-Ning Expressway, the Hu-Qing-Ping Expressway, the Tong-San National Expressway and the Hu-Lu Expressway, have all been completed and open to traffic.

Environment Protection and Rectification
 
Shanghai has made remarkable progress in pollution control and environment protection. In 2006, the city invested 31.085 billion yuan, or more than 3% of the city's GDP, into environmental protection projects. The effective control of discharged pollutants helped the city's good air quality to reach 88.8%. The city treated 71% of its sewage.

Urban Greening
 
By the end of 2006, the city's areas of parks and greenbelts amounted to 30,600 hectares. Of the total, 13,300 hectares were public green areas. The average per capita green area reached 11.5 square meters in the city and the green area coverage reached 37.7% of the city's total territory. In recent years, the city had built a great many large green areas, including the Yanzhong Greenbelt, Taipingqiao Greenbelt, Huangxing Park, Daning Greenbelt, the Xujiahui Park, the third phase of the People's Square Park, the third phase of the Xujiahui Park, Yanhong Greenbelt, Expo Forest, and the first phase of Riverside Forest Park.

Text Courtesy of Shanghai Daily